Toyota is one of the world's biggest automotive manufacturers and the oldest and most influential in the Philippines, particlaurly in bacolod, although the first ever AUV was revolutionized by the Toyota tamaraw and later more derivatives of the tamaraw also came out, but as time passes the toyota jeepneys also came along with the trend of cab-over models, in late 90's to the early 2000's, local jeepney fabricators experimented with surplus japan-spec Toyota cv's
the tamaraw was a 0.5 ton AUV produced by delta motors and astro motors in Indonesia and called the kijang The 1st generation tamaraw was first introduced on June 9, 1977 in a very simple form. Half-door pickup box, with side windows made of tarpaulin and plastic. Hinge door looks from the outside. Known as the tamaraw and tamaraw super deluxe it is equipped with a 3K 1.2-litre engine. This car is called in Indonesia as the Kijang Buaya because the hood can be opened up to the side.
because of its utilitarian form, the tamaraw quicly selled during the 70's especally in bacolod, the tamaraw especially the first generation roughly comprises of the same components used by the 1970 Toyota Corolla, Toyota's idea was to make it possible that the tamaraw and corolla can outsource and use and have the same source of spare parts
the first generation roughly comprises of the same components used by the 1970 Corolla, Toyota's idea was to make it possible that the corolla and the tamaraw can outsource and use and even have the same source of spare parts, the first generation is powered by 1.2L 3K gasoline engine
A 1st Generation tamaraw jeepney plying the Magsungay-Central market route, some of this are real originals, because some of them still use the Toyota 3K engines, the first and second generation of tamaraws is popular in routes such as this.
The second generation is roughly made out of the same components as used by the 1st generation tamarraw sharing components with toyota sedans such as the corolla and the corona, it has al larger dimension than 1st generation and includes an improved grill design and more engine options which includes the tamaraw standard powered by a Toyota 4K gas engine, the "super tamaraw" which is powered by the Toyota 5R gas engine and "tamaraw super diesel" powered by the Toyota 1B diesel engine
The 3rd 4th generation were 2x larger than the previous tamaraw models, sharing components with the 1977-80's hilux pickup it was able to have more capacities and bigger dimensions it is powered by a Toyota 12R gas engine and the Toyota 2B diesel engine. both the 3rd and 2nd generation tamaraws were marketed together in the late 70's and till early 80'sand the late 80's the 4th and 3rd generation tamaraws were all that's left in production..
the tamaraw had simple controls and front seating a non-collapsable steering wheel and unitary seats comfortably sits 3 to 4 persons, the fuel tank is located at the bottom of the seats, the dashboard is all steel and only houses a top compartment and the instrument cluster..
the instrument cluster is quite plain and simple.. a gauge cluster desingned especially for the early hilux models were used, it only has a speedometer, a fuel-temp, charge and oil warning lamp and gauge cluster and the turn and high beam indicators.
the tamarawis designed with an all-metal no-fuss body, the basic structure of the tamaraw are squarey lines and mostly of ungeometric proportions which induces an
The 2-valve OHV 1.2 L (1166 cc) 3K was produced from 1969 through 1977. Cylinder bore was 75 mm (2.95 in) and stroke was 66 mm (2.6 in). 3K 68ps at 6000rpm. 3K-BR 74ps at 6600rpm. 3K-B 77ps at 6600rpm and 74ps at 6600rpm (compression ratio of 10 and 9).
4K- The 1.3 L (1290 cc) 4K was produced from 1978 through 1989. Cylinder bore was 75 mm (2.95 in) and stroke was 73 mm (2.87 in). It was a 2-valve OHV engine.
In 1980, the 4K produced 60 hp (45 kW) at RPM. From 1982 through 1984, output was 65 hp (48 kW) at 5600 RPM and 72 ft·lbf (97 N·m) at 3600 RPM.
5R - The 2.0 L (1994 cc) 5R family was produced from 1968 through 1986. It was a 2-valve OHV engine. Cylinder bore was 88 mm (3.46 in) and stroke was 82 mm (3.23 in). Output was 106 hp (79 kW) at 5200 rpm and 125 ft·lbf (169 N·m) at 3000 rpm.
1B - the 1B is an inline 4 eight valve OHV diesel engine. Compression ratio is 21:1. Output is 80 hp (60 kW) at 3600 rpm with 141 ft·lbf (191 N·m) of torqueat 2200 rpm.
12R 2.0- The 1.6 L (1587 cc) 12R was produced from 1969 through 1988.
gas engine with a Bore & stroke: 80,5x78,0mm a Compression ratio of 8,5:1 and a maximum power output of 90hp/5400rpm SAE
2B - The 2B is a 3.2 L inline 4 eight valve OHV diesel engine. Compression ratio is 21:1. Output is 93 hp (69 kW) at 2200 rpm with 159 ft·lbf (215 N·m) of torque at 2200 rpm.
Derivatives of the tamaraw
because of the tamaraw's vast productivity and spare parts and compatibility with the local motoring atmosphere, tamaraws became more and more common until many owners decided to personify and customize their toyota tamaraws, in the late 70's to the mid 90's the level of customization of the tamaraw increased dastrically, from the dropping of the original steel dashboard, to the swapping for bucket seats, and many other custom parts derived from surplus vehicles,
The Manshuki which now one of the most popular jeepney platform in Bacolod is originally a 3rd/4th generation tamaraw which is heavily modified from automotive components from different manufacturers, all fused together into a locally fabricated body which has been patterned from the late 70's super tamaraw jeepney, the manshuki is a very unpredictable design as its engines are not a toyota, it has engines coming from different manufacturers, some manshukis also use Isuzu C engines and or Mitsubishi astron diesel and even Mazda r2 engines.. originally, the Manshuki is only posed for the Bata-Libertad route,but as of the few years from now it is seen in almost all routes around the city..
1st gen and 2nd gen spinoffs
Different models, same platform, same manufacturer slight difference in styling..
Hiace Cab and Dyna
Both Hiace and Dyna 0.5 are similar,
The Toyota Hiace is a motor vehicle produced by the Japanese manufacturer Toyota. First launched in 1967, the Hiace has since been available in a wide range of configurations, including minivan (MPV) and minibus, van, pick-up, taxi, ambulance and motorhome.
The Hiace also has undergone significant popularity in Bacolod owing to the chassis durability and capacity to haul a large amount of passengers, like the Hyundai Porter and Mitsubishi L300 and Delicas, the Hiace truck goes thru the usual modification such as the fabrication of a passenger compartment, and the results are seen below;
A Toyota Hiace jeepney operating the alijis-central market route
A 1984 model of the dyna truck platform
The 1987-1995 Toyota dyna or also known as the toyoace is another very popular toyota commercial vehicle being modified for jeepney use, the dyna is popular because of its very robust platform to operate, and a very relaible engine, the smaller 1.5 - 2.0 ton dyna and toyoaces are the that are popular among jeepney operators
Cab differences between Hiaces and Dynas
You would notice, the hiace's cab design is common to the bigger Toyoace, though it had different frontal styling. it is because both the dyna and the hiace cab rolled off the same production line of ARACO- Arakawa Automotive Body Corp. (Now Toyota Auto body) which today makes the 5th generation Hiace vans in Toyota City and Hino Motors in Hino City, Japan.
you will also notice that all cab components are similar, flarings, vinyl parts, dashboards, glovebox design and aircon vents,
Smaller Dynas from 1987-1990's and 1988-1995 Hiace Cabs have the same kind of instrumentation and control system. earlier dyna 150s and hiaces do not have tachometers and only have speedometers and fuel-temp gauge clusters enclosed in a boxy instrument panel, all climate controls are situated to the driver's left, just a few inches away from the gauges,
Meanwhile, some later Dyna 150 models and higher models especially those having deluxe packages have a more sleeker design, instead of a boxy instrument cluster, the cluster includes a large readable 8-inch speedometer, and a 4-inch tachometer and fuel-temp gauge cluster, all warning lights can be found on the bottom right below the tachometer and the fuel-temp guages.
this unitary design might be the key to Toyota's effective production and has contributed to durability and parts interchangeability between the 0.5 Ton Dyna and the Hiace Cab
Both Toyota CV platforms are powered by the Toyota L series of engines especially the 2L and 3L engines
The 2L is a 2.4 L (2446 cc) 4 cylinder diesel engine. Bore is 92 mm and stroke is 92 mm, with a compression ratio of 22.3:1. Output is 86–87 hp (64–65 kW) at 4000 RPM with 115 ft·lb (156 N·m) of torque at 2200 RPM , while the 3L is a 2.8 L (2779 cc) 4 cylinder diesel engine. Bore is 96 mm and stroke is 96 mm, with a compression ratio of 22.2:1. Output is 91 hp (68 kW) at 3,800 RPM with 134.9 ft·lb (183 N·m) of torque at 2400 RPM.
power transfers through a high torque Aisin 5-speed and or 6-speed transmission.
Hiace and Dyna Jeepneys are popular platforms in almost all routes around the city, the most numerous are in puntataytay, mandalagan and mansiligan routes, dynas can be also be found on inter-municipal routes such as the pulupandan-bacolod route